Keeping your pool properly balanced is one of your most important assignments as a pool owner.
Many things can throw the water out of balance. How often you use the pool, rain, sun, wind, algae, dust debris, circulation, even which sanitizers you use. The source of fresh water (well, municipal, etc) will also affect water balance in a number of ways. Six factors need to be monitored for their effect on water balance:
- Total Alkalinity
- Calcium Hardness
- Total Dissolved Solids
When all these factors are within acceptable ranges, it is unlikely that your water will cause corrosion or scale deposits. Well balanced water also provides maximum bather comfort. Use your Poolife® 6-Way Test Strips daily. Take a water sample to your authorized Poolife® dealer monthly for a complete laboratory analysis.
Understanding pH is one of the most important aspects of pool care. Low pH can lead to skin irritation and corrosion of equipment. High pH can result in cloudy water and contribute to scale formation. More importantly, the incorrect pH will reduce the effectiveness of the chlorine in your swimming pool. Remember to check the pH at least twice a week. The ideal range is between 7.2 – 7.6.
2. Total Alkalinity
Total alkalinity (TA) refers to the quantity of alkaline materials dissolved in water, which act as a buffer in controlling pH change. TA is an important factor that should be taken into account in optimizing water conditions.
The ideal range for pools using Poolife® calcium hypochlorite based primary sanitizers such as Poolife® Active Cleaning® Granules, NST® Prime Tablets is 60-100 ppm and for pools using trichlor based primary sanitizers such as Poolife® 1″ Cleaning Tablets, 3″ Cleaning Tablets and the MPT Extra™ chlorinating tablets, the recommended range is between 80-120 ppm.
If TA is below 60 ppm the pH will not stay in the proper range and the pool water may promote corrosion and cause damage to pool fixtures and equipment. TA that is above 120 ppm can cause cloudy water or scale.
NOTE: Cyanuric acid (stabilizer) will interfere with the test for total alkalinity, therefore it is necessary to compensate for this interference. For pools with properly maintained pH and a cyanuric acid level above 50 ppm, the correction formula is Tested Total Alkalinity Result – 1/3 Cyanuric Acid Reading = TRUE TOTAL ALKALINITY. In other words, subtract one-third of the cyanuric acid reading from the tested total alkalinity reading to compensate for the interference.
3. Calcium Hardness
All water contains some natural hardness, which will vary by geographic region and by source within a region. Calcium hardness (CH) refers to the calcium and magnesium content of the pool water. It is wise to test the CH levels regularly to prevent problems on the pool shell or in the circulation system. The recommended range for calcium hardness is 200-500 ppm (up to 1,000 ppm is acceptable). Pool water with a calcium level above 1,000 ppm may become cloudy and if left long enough will form scale on pool surfaces and fittings. CH below 200 ppm can corrode pool equipment. In plaster pools it may result in pitting or etching problems. Testing for hardness should be done by your authorized Poolife® dealer, preferably at spring opening (or new pool opening) and once a month during the swimming season. You could also use the Poolife® 6-Way Test Strips.
4. Total Dissolved Solids
The total dissolved solids (TDS) are the total amount of material dissolved in your pool water. Solids that are dissolved and can’t be filtered out. So the TDS level naturally goes up over time as more water is evaporated and more chemicals are added. Although the TDS concentration has little effect on water balance, above a certain level (2,000 ppm) problems may occur with water clarity and taste. Testing for TDS should be done by your authorized Poolife® dealer, preferably at the spring opening (or new pool opening).
For the most part water temperature also has little effect on water balance. But when water temperatures stay over 90 degrees F, scale formation can develop rapidly. Prevention is the easiest solution – so test the water more frequently when it’s consistently that hot.
The problem with a high metal level is the staining it causes on pool surfaces. Unwanted metals can be the result of unbalanced water.
Source water can be a primary cause of unwanted metals.
Corrosive water can attract metals from exposed metallic surfaces such as ladders.
Copper-based algaecides can also be a source of metals.
Ideally, no detectable metals should be present in your pool at any time. Ask your authorized Poolife® dealer to test monthly. If metals are present, use Poolife® Intensive Stain Prevention® product, which helps prevent and even remove some stains.
the bottom line on water balancing
You’ll be a lot more comfortable in the water, and your pool and equipment will be much better protected, if you maintain well-balanced pool water. This means keeping the pH, total alkalinity (remember the effect of cyanuric acid on the true TA reading), calcium hardness, and total dissolved solids within their acceptable ranges (see table below).
Summary of recommended ranges for water balance factors:
pH: 7.2 – 7.6
Total Alkalinity: 60-120 ppm (depending on your sanitizer)
Calcium Hardness: 200-500 ppm (up to 1,000 ppm is acceptable)
Total Dissolved Solids: up to 2,000 ppm
Copper: 0 ppm
Iron: 0 ppm